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(D.I.Y. Article) do it yourself - How To
The Australian House "The 15 Kw house" - Solar Wind Hybrid "power system" OFF GRID
note: "all DIY" Self constructed-installed , Self Imported and self brokered kits price estimate includes batteries and tariff and transport and much of the install materials
("example prices quoted by a supplier are usually in USD as an intermediary currency" and require conversion to AUD)
Anyone living within 20Km of coastline (and 80 meters away from another residence) can safely use a wind solar hybrid of as little as 8Kw rating to mimic grid supply level powering because of the land-sea convection wind reliability!
You can understand it may be easier as a home buyer to incorporate the price of an off-grid system stipulated into a home loan and finding a block at least 100 meters long to build with the turbine at least 80 meters from other residences and with council building zoning allowance of off-grid equipment!
Why switch off the first world? because the grid is always the same size and alike petrol or anything else it is truthfully getting more expensive and as much purely unpredictable of cost in a short period of time against wages and inflation!
Anyone living within 20Km of coastline (and 80 meters away from another residence) can safely use a wind solar hybrid of as little as 8Kw rating to mimic grid supply level powering because of the land-sea convection wind reliability!
What's the point of being Phil from energyaustralia to be there(as is in the advert) to do an air-con installation when all someone can do to save money is "be advised to switch it off" because it costs too much to operate so cannot use it , is essentially fossil fuel fed too!
Pre note: It is obviously possible to completely power a house "almost normally" from a combination of 5000w(washing machine - small microwave - small pluggable hot water) and 2500w(lights small fans radio) pure sine wave inverters(DC-storage to 240vAC) using only 1.5Kw to 2Kw solar and 3 of 400w-600w 12v AC turbines(rectified by a controller to the battery bank each) by changing(to smaller equipment and more jobs) many of the household job equipment capacities and managing heavy jobs at optimum weather generation time but requires switching from two banks of 4x 250ah(heavy amp throughput deep cycle by density size electrodes 70-80 Kg each) and for the 2500w 4x 80ah.
E.G. An "oil column heater for winter" would require 2x 400w-600w 12v AC turbines, and
But a "small properly powerful" alike to the previous mentioned 12v system, a less difficult user system only requiring one heavy household job after another by weather management requires below(in article) as calculated battery bank system is with a 5Kw wind hybrid(3Kw wind - 2Kw Solar rated 48v charging) on a 15 meter tower with two 10Kw pure sine inverters.
Personally, i would buy the extension cords(5000w = 22 amps @ 240v) (2500w = 10 amps @ 240v) and hide them with some over-skirting boards fixtures and locks for safety , rather than rewire the house if it came to it with price and domestic electrical fitting work law.
The full size system of 10Kw hybrid generation is a mimic of having grid power connection, and the 8Kw hybrid generation is an economical mimic of having grid power connection!
The analogy herein this article for these off grid power system sizes is similar metaphorically to the differences between travelling in a v-six cylinder modern station wagon(10-8Kw) 1000Km or travelling in a small 4 cylinder sedan(5-6Kw), with the 12v system(2-3kw) calculated alike travelling 1000km in a hatch back.
Your average electricity bill
Australia has begun a wind turbine system manufacture that can be applied to domestic power, the "Eco Whisper 325" 5Kw wind turbine PICTURE(20Kw) Eco Whisper information PDF Main Site Eco Whisper, However, it will possibly never be a competitor economically, only "an economic white elephant as a choice" as almost everything built in Australia is governed by standards that are world class not merely its precision construction requirements and materials and accredited licensed human resources(this means with 4 years Tertiary Deg. and a further 2 years for PhD "a spade is most certainly a spade...but is it black or white??? will we ever know...").
For domestic use the average Australian will never be seeing it as an economically viable choice that would cost only 10 years worth of grid for 12 years use in a complete system with twice the electricity(20 years grid usage worth).
Since i am not the Eco Whisper project auditor or financier i do not project it cannot be competitive somewhere in all business considerations however the before-mentioned points need to be considered. Certainly it will not be economically a point for the next half a decade.
Note: There should be a web counter at the bottom of this page [If the page does not (load properly) , then press F5 key to reload page ]
Nothing could be ruder than being 1 Kilometer from any mains network grid outlet in Australia and quoted ¤30K (thirty thousand dollars) costs
to simply put in the supply to the premises without consuming any before ¤30K is paid down to (¤10K for shorter distances).
So below in this DIY and self imported estimation that has taken one and a half years of research to produce,
why not buy 10 - 14 years worth of twice the quantity of electricity for less!
At 15K dollars connection charge a mildly remote house(500 meters away), a bank loan alike housing loan can be a competitive strategy
An average mains grid supplied home with more than two persons will cost approx. 20,000 dollars for ten years electricity
The carbon tax from mains grid electricity takes your money and you consume fossil fuel
The wind solar hybrid actually commits being green renewable clean energy and
(only problem) "required size to RELIABLY supply-generate(weather - cost implementation)"
gives twice the usable electricity (40,000 AUD of electricity, for 26,000 AUD implementation)Link: What they didn't tell you!!!
In terms of costs loans and taxation, it does not appear anything or government takes any notice of the price of living as neither did the french colonial government of Vietnam when it taxed its peasants for rice until it was impossible to have enough to live upon. One partial story of the origin of the North Vietnam uprising went that before the 1950's uprising the peasant farmers sold their excess rice(rice to live on) to exporters whom would not pay anything much or would then not buy any if as much as a measly cost were its price,then the excess rice would not be sold and go rotten, in turn the french colonial government(relying in part on its tax somewhere in the trade line) then taxed peasants using rice and there was nothing over for the living thus giving Ho Chi Min and others their point as many of them to revolt and commit revolution.
The same mentality by the Australian government appears to be being committed from any party in power in terms of revenue creation, that being taxation without regard to consequence on the idea of Australia as a first world expensive country. The money may be there but its point may not. For example around ten years back i went past a real estate window one evening that had a sign warning the next day all property sales are on the new sales taxation increased rate. "Over-night!!!" A 315,000 house that night, was with a sticker over the price the next day , a 420,000 dollar house, 430,000 house that night was the next day a 550,000 house, and any of them had a new sticker over the price. That means at least average "3 years worth more annual wage earner income pay completely and totally" is added to the price which is around six to eight more years loan repayment time.Did anything increase everyones wages 50%??? I bet not!
While it is true solar panels continue to operate when sun is behind cloud it is nowhere near as efficient and often drops to 25% output(e.g. 5Kw panels outputs 1.25Kw) particularly on cloudy days and in winter. Australian grid tied solar kits at the proper sensible size of 5Kw are around $6K for the kit only(i am aware some cheaper specials do exist and some subvertive cheaper specials). Installation drives these to around $10K finally. In origin of the grid tie rebate campaign until now, grid tied kits by Australian suppliers were around 15K to 25K fully installed. The main complaint laid in pricing by power producers is the "ongoing infrastructure" required to service long mileage of remote power lines because it is not an automated action, it requires paying humans whom have high level education. It also concedes out of town non suburban power supply is an economic parasite because suburban in town supply only quite makes any money, and the money is actually made by selling to factory industrial.
The Basic Economics of the DIY System
This article is all DIY (Do It Yourself) , if you intend to use a transport company or any extra paid workers then the economic point of the DIY will be lost (unless you are a farmer and have helper employees).
Also, the "Installing" section sets some minimums for both skills and materials which you should have or be able to obtain at a TAFE or adult learning center. Alternative materials to mild steel may be cheaper but should be found on a cost - supply basis.
It is illegal to work on "grid wired housing and physically adjoined premises", however, off grid does not carry any relevance for wiring non adjoined non grid premises,*but , everything physical(mounts, frames , battery housing, inverter housing) can be constructed and put in place ready to be wired(e.g. all the way to the cables layed out and mounted on carry poles too) and an electrician can then be used to join the inverter output to the premises fuse box system(will require getting a new fuse box set) and a "kit set power system" with this previous action will allow full insurance and off grid rebate applicable , bringing the 15Kw kit back to around 20.000 AUD. In terms of electrical education , there are many places on the net such as "youtube videos" that can help understand this type of system. And as much for purpose of legal electrical specifications(not much required) those too can be found on the internet(a little similar to the USA e.g. you can burn yourself down if you want but not if its strata title).
note: "all DIY" Self Imported and self brokered kits price estimate includes batteries and tariff and transport and much of the install materials
(prices quoted by a supplier are usually in USD as an intermediary currency and require conversion)
Online Currency converter xe.com
"Basic Loan Repayments" Calculator - for people whom possibly would use finance (randomly taken link from a site)
This costing estimate is "something like" ONLY , it depends the deal you make regardless the exchange rate (principally) , Update: 2016 - it cost now approx. the same as the 92c usd/aud exchange in the table at 74c usd/aud now
(note: "high quality" sealed lead acid accumulators are the best of least costly - see more below) Price can vary by AUD 1500 by exchange rate(money buying or transaction base rate) and Australian dollar exchange rate value.
In essence, this article explains you require 80 x 80ah deep cycle accumulators at 120vDC-charging system, or 100 x 65ah deep cycle accumulators at 240vDC-charging system. And a final point, at least 120 - 140 x 65ah deep cycle accumulators at "20Kw" 240vDC-charging system.
HOWEVER, it can be squeezed better and less expensive longer lasting with other lead acid battery chemistry types AS SHOWN LATER and with help from some calculators in this article!!!
The Hybrid kit suppliers often do not supply the correct standard and type of battery for this use here in this article of 12 years battery cycle life for general house size(usually, not unless you pay enough), So you must buy the accumulators elsewhere as a trade deal near MOQ. Use the information here to understand the minimum requirements for an economic DIY scheme.
The reason for complete kits is all the turbine, controller, and panel voltages match.
If you do not use a complete electrical system in your house (e.g. use gas for cooking or hot water) and want to get the off grid power system parts piece by piece, remember to match all together controller voltages to battery bank voltage and turbine input and solar input voltages!!!
A note about "wind solar hybrid controllers(the charger)" ...
Solar , wind or hybrid controllers require matching voltages to input AND current(amperage or wattage) levels. With a Hybrid controller there are some features to understand to successfully match input charge of wind turbine and PV panels to the controller.
Here are some specifications taken from a controller that outputs to 96v rated battery bank.
Of 2014, here is a controller that DIY part by part is the correct size for operating a home alike having the grid, but either way the generator size is very important to prevent batteries ever being drained below 15% from the top (15% DOD).
Note before starting, the companies for both batteries and hybrid power systems mentioned at the bottom of the page are an extensive survey research for best and largest economically comparative to network electricity in Australia of will supply the Kw power level required to compete, there do not appear to be any others in these online commercial catalogs. If the system will last at least twelve years it will be similar to even implementation cost but by 7 years use a hybrid kit is at least the same quantity of electricity against Australian networks 10 years supply approx. Kw/h economically(However, a hybrid kit may be - can be twice the ready supply-usage p/time unit).
One company has 5Kw power generation Grid tie Hybrid sets 2kw-solar and 3kw-wind , that is only suitable for houses that council and neighbors do not mind the noise of the wind turbine and unlikely in city suburbs where that would not be tolerated. NOTE: grid tied is not useful to streets where houses are more than 50 meters(probably only 30 meters) apart because the supply line loses appreciable chunks of the generated energy back up the line to supply, generally it would take a 10kw grid tie kit that would only produce back 5kw into the grid running at maximum, so they are not a huge point except in villages and very small towns with large house blocks, but well worth it if they are tolerant of a little extra humming noise and is also 24/7 with wind. Beyond 50 meters apart it is not worth grid tie or costs or impending grid prices.
All Australian houses are 15Kw power system minimum(or around 8Kw generator power system requirement if "gas heating,gas cooking and gas hot water" are used).
A science show once aired on Australian TV boasted they could operate an Australian home off grid using a 3Kw wind turbine generator.
Link: (PDF) Importation steps and processes from deal to customs warehouse N30 RCR exit after "cleared" (note: schedule 4 mention in this should be "schedule 3" , 4 is the concession type information)
Hours of 240v usage from Lead Acid(Gel/fluid) battery bank storage of 12v Ampere Hours total (By DOD float discharge)
@ "X"Kw current draw [REQUIRED]
Battery Bank in 12v AH Total [REQUIRED - numerals only]
|(5 years Max) Kw/Hours of 240v To (30% DOD -hours) (Total in Minutes )|
|(10+ years) Kw/Hours of 240v To (15% DOD -hours) (Total in Minutes )|
[ Always research GEL lead acid for discharges to price , apart normal fluid lead acid type , another is also PAM , it's usually MOQ is the deal problem but ask them ]
While the calculation above shows you how much storage in "the basic daily requirement must be available", it does not tell you much about the differences of "Lead Acid type batteries alone" for the purpose of lasting 12 years to 15% DOD , the following calculation can be fed the number of discharges from the specific models' data sheet to convert to years as a decimal fraction.
Number of Discharges to X% DOD discharges to Years
4400 discharges is 12 years, 2200 is 6 years.
A six year system of 80x of "40ah" deep cycle GEL to 30% DOD may be a more suitable strategy for some.
with the calculator above the battery bank "3200 AH" time is 23.132 hours total(23Kw/h worth at 30% DOD) per discharge to 30% DOD.
With the data sheet below, we can see it will last 6 years at or below 23o Celsius.
So to use a six year battery strategy, in 5-1/2 years you research and buy another 80x of 40ah accumulators.
One final point to this is 40ah deep cycle are quite small, so best to use not above 120v Battery bank system voltage you choose to order.
There are many chemical combination types of lead acid battery system, relating "Lifespan In Years" because of temperature and chemistry type!!!
* PAM additive long life lead acid. Link: PAM additive deep cycle
* GEL more efficient basic lead acid or with PAM.
* Light constructed short life low discharge quantity low temperature operation.
* Longer life-span high temperature, heavy construction. Link: Quality GEL lead acid
* AGM Absorbed Glass Mat.
* Silicon Lead Acid wide temperature operation range.
These are the common Lead Acid deep cycle types and efficiency varies immensely with ,
* price (above or below MOQ , company and set quantity) * Note, always buy "EXW" or "CIF"(particularly) only!!! (*sp-note: MOQ - Minimum Order Quantity - e.g. units: "sets" or "pieces")
* DOD depth of discharge ratings (shorter float life-span 15%DOD is similar to 30%DOD - long-life 15% is more double 30%)
* with temperature-float-lifespan (accumulator model life-span should be more than 10 years always at or above 20o Celsius!)
* local environment temperature affected "ah capacity".
* current draw "rate of discharge" affected "ah capacity".
In short, there can be any combination of mentioned above offered , but it is a matter of verifying the price , the model and "data sheet information" are effective at a 12 year job.
You need to be sure it will operate around 50% capacity at 10oC , the float life is more than 12 years at 20oC minimum , and discharge to 30% is at least 1600 discharges , and if a GEL.
In short always ask for an estimate of 15% DOD and 30% DOD and the data sheet, and it always requires a high quality "Lead Acid" to be economic enough.
*As explained later, there are ways of keeping the temperature of batteries at a level that will give more than 10 years "float life" and around 80-90% capacity to charge to.
RECAP NOTE: Remember as said before, only use a totally sealed battery type, NEVER ventilated to atmosphere!
Here is a sufficient version 80ah-100ah GEL http://ciyibattery.en.alibaba.com/ which the "20 pieces M.O.Q." trade lot will be more expensive "per piece" if only 16 were the trade deal (for small 48v or small 96v), but the piece quantity(50) is effectively perfect by discharges for the 120v or 240v(240v would require 60 pieces) 8Kw and 10Kw Hybrid power generator systems to between 30% and 15% over 12 years compared to the high quality lead acids full stop! And another sufficient 80ah GEL (large MOQ trade lot will be more expensive "per piece") http://motoma.en.alibaba.com/
Lead Acid Battery types maintenance
NOTE: Equalising lead acid batteries should be done in accordance with the requirements stipulated for the "brand" and model with the manufacturers information, "sealed batteries" cannot be chemically tested so ask for the specific information at order time.
* Some charge controllers come with an "equalisation function", However, as before, ask for the specific maintenance information on equalising lead acids' for the model at order time.
The above data sheet is good problem to show about one of the most important features of a controller in its settings!
A charge controller must have a "settable" "Overcharge-voltage setting" and an "Overcharge recovery setting".
The overcharge setting stops the charger from damaging the battery by overcharging, it switches the turbine charge controller to the dump load circuit for the turbine generator output.
The recovery from overcharge allows the charge controller to charge the battery bank when it's been used a tiny piece and the voltage has dropped according to the setting given to it that is usually only half a volt lower than the "overcharged setting(battery bank is full)".
In short, two main proper sized domestic house "DC system voltages" for 8Kw and 10Kw exist, 120v DC and 240v DC battery bank and hence charge controller!
To make 120v system with 12 volt batteries requires a series line of 10 accumulators.
To make a line of 240v require 20 accumulators(batteries) in series.
(Hypothetical) However, there could have been a bad mishap and lost 2 batteries in a 240v DC battery bank system!!!!!!!!!!!!!
If we take a look at the upper and lower bounds of the allowed charge control input we find we may have a difference of as much as 30v - 40v volts from battery bank full to battery bank drained.
As before a line of 20 x 12v batteries that are empty are 20x 11.2 volts = 224v (lower bounds).
However, our Data sheet above says each cell in the 12v battery(has six cells) is full to "rated AH battery capacity for 100% level temperature" at approx. 14.4v and should be floated at 2.275v p/cell (13.65v * 20 = 273 volts).
14.4v x 20 = 288 volts makes accumulator bank full to "rated AH battery capacity for 100% level temperature".
224 volts is minimum. (*! nearly equalising voltage 4.4v !!!! - should be more like "Overcharged (at around 70%-80% Capacity maximum allowed charge for bank temperature): 18 x 13.5 = 243 volts" - and "Overcharged recovery: 239 volts").
[Hypothetical battery damage emergency situation - series line reshuffle] Removing two batteries on each line so each series line of batteries has only 18 batteries, at full makes 18 x 14.4 = 259.2 volts
When you switch an appliance on, the battery voltage(charge quantity relationship) drops quickly for a moment "called surge or appliance surge" then rises back up to near the closed voltage and slowly drops down with use.
So while you replace the batteries, the system overcharge setting can be "259 volts" and the overcharge recovery can be "258.5 volts" THEORETICALLY.
Data Sheet above: 20x batteries series line = 240v , 7.5 years at 20o Celsius , 100% AH capacity enabled at 20o Celsius
Normal operation is, it should be floated at 2.275v p/cell (13.65v * 20 = 273 volts).
So "overcharge setting" should be 288 volts.
"overcharge recovery" should be 276 volts (13.8v p/battery).
And float should be 272 volts (13.6v p/battery)
Therefore, a battery with 80% capacity of AH's at 20o Celsius, for 15 years life span at that temperature, has its overcharge recovery set at the voltage the battery test outputs at 80% capacity of its rated AH's.
When talking to the supplier about a kit and the controller, ask if it has automatic temperature compensation, whether a built in temperature sensor or if the float and overcharge should be set manually.
Here is an example only: Take a look at the values for: Floating Voltage(V) , Over Voltage Shutoff (V) Over Voltage Recovery(V)
[note: The most sensible and effective system is lead acid accumulator chemistry construction that can handle 30o Celsius rated at 10 years (what it takes to get more than 10 years at 20 degrees), expensive cheap version, simply not cheap, but more worth its point in Australia or equatorial and tropical environments ]
[ NOTE: This next paragraph is almost redundant and better sizing tactics and chemistry are now known (80x 40ah batteries for 6 years maybe better as GEL or PAM - then buy another for a six year period in 5-1/2 years when the first are near out of service) ]
When acquiring batteries "for the period the first set should be designed to last 7 years"(if not high quality sealed lead acid) at least so either medium or superior lead acid sealed batteries should be used. A medium quality battery has [average 7 years lifespan at 25 degrees Celsius - and - 1400 discharges approximately to 30% DOD]. In power system set lifespan the second set 7 years later may be low quality or another medium quality. Superior quality for 9 years followed by low quality for 4 to 5 years service life is another strategy.
This is why the 10 years at 30o Celsius life-cycle type (high quality sealed lead acid) is the best and basically only choice to use,However, understanding its' capacity% on the LCD screen read out will appear annoying at various temperatures and why a little adjustment in how to encase the batteries with an extra 400w small hybrid system and 100w fish tank heater in a completely sealed plastic 10 gallon fuel drum to incubate the housing or room they are kept, they are often around 75% capacity maximum because of temperature for the chemistry when below 25o Celsius (note, the temperature compensation thermometer is often part of the controller and must be in the same environment as the batteries!!!).
Battery housing and temperature control (a)
(A cooling fan in summer is reasonably optional in the battery housing, however, in winter heating is not optional. For the batteries to maintain usable and chargeable capacity, in winter they must be heated in the battery housing, particularly high quality long life-cycle batteries(only ordinary standard lead acid type accumulator system is viewed in this article because of cost). Reasonably much too, for high quality long life-cycle batteries , they can have double walling, but medium low quality of only 10 years life at 20oC must have triple walling)
About battery operation and data sheets, a point that is required is to normalise the temperature of batteries during use and storage because temperature has a severe effect on life of the battery, it can be as short as 4 or 5 years if above 20 to *"25" degrees Celsius(Some batteries are better than others in this respect and the example is a superior quality lead acid sealed battery compared to most but do not leave it to chance - "life cycle to temperature"). Your battery house should have two fly-wire covered holes of 15cm x 15cm at the top of the wall on both ends of the battery housing to place a 12v fan into one of them for summer heat e.g. a 50watt(4amps @ 12v) or 100w(8amps @ 12v) 12v fan to run from the "load circuit(100w or 200w output dependent model)" (or use a ** "12v DC to 240v AC inverter" and a normal domestic roof exhaust fan - ** note: 12v inverter-controller voltage is very good theft deterrent because only a maximum of 4 12v deep cycle accumulators can ever be put together, because only in parallel and no more than 2Kw output power or it becomes dangerous and damaging to the accumulators - Also it's good for running 100w or 200w tropical fish tank heater set at 22-23o Celsius in a sealed 10 gallon plastic tank in the battery bank housing in winter, In winter close off the air vent gaps and line the walls and roof with card-board as insulation. The high quality life-cycle temperature batteries must have heat during winter, and it will do little against the medium low quality with a life-cycle of only 10 years at 20oC) of a solar hybrid lamp-light controller or (controllers). This you can use a 100w-500w hybrid wind solar kit with a 100w-400w turbine and a small 20w-200w panel and a 12v-10ah battery , use the "load output" circuit from the controller set to the number "always on" in summer months and for much of Australia set to the number "on only for daylight" in winter months( ! must be hybrid system). The two holes will require to be blocked off if winter is particularly cold as it is in highland areas.
note: The batteries in use are higher temperature (high quality life-cycle lead acid) batteries 1600 cycles to 30% DOD.
AN EXAMPLE of a parallel 12v set to set up the charge controller parameters for the battery bank:
This means at 20o Celsius "the battery is considered full at 13.6v" because of temperature.(Calculated from data sheet for 2.5v type cell for each of the six cells added together).
At 20o Celsius the battery "capacity in AH is lower in rating" only 80% for the total nominated AH rating of model type of battery (12v 6 cell lead acid).
These were nominally 40AH i was using so they are now 34AH at 20o Celsius.
Should have set the "float-voltage charge" setting to 13.4v
"overcharge" setting at: 13.7v
"overcharge recovery" setting at 13.5v
Battery housing and temperature control (b)
Another critical factor of battery housings for the batteries is the requirement of "triple walling(against infra-red transfer between outer and mid walls) and a triple roof", an outer wall is made to block any direct sunlight as the sun moves over and around the housing. This allows more controlled heat dissipation and blocks the damaging summer heat. These outer cover sections should not be closed to air rain wind(in a context of a perfect seal, except the roof plate of each being water proof and the inner actual housing being wind-rain splash proof), leave an air gap of 10cm each corner or overlap length(as you design it), and should have as little contact with the inner wall as possible "no contact of any form if possible in its construction" (prevent conductance of heat between the inner and outer walls and allow air flow to take away heat). Each wall set should be around one foot(12 inches) apart from each face (a box within a mid box within an outer box principal).
*** Note: (Correct wire) A feature of above is a "small power" 400w or 300w wind turbine, these turbines are often thought by many DIY and people whom need some small electricity supply to be faulty. However, the fault lies in the installers comprehension with a technical problem of wiring. Copper wire in the USA has a standard called #AWG related to the amperage the wire can carry safely, However, its not quite the problem here!
The problem is the actual resistance of the wire against current over long distances. Given the above turbines are usually 12 volt(some are 24v others 48v) normal automotive wire can be bought cheap but not effective. So someone thinks to put the turbine up 10 meters, away 40 meters from the house where there are no trees but does not realise 8mm2 wire or at least 90 amp 12v wire would be required as minimum to 30 meters. After 20 meters it should be 8mm2 copper and larger again to carry charge with low resistance after 50 meters.
What happened is the 400w turbine is only producing 100w because of normal wind but when it gets to the controller there is only 10w left from the travel because of resistance. The thicker the wire and strands the less the resistance. 6mm2 is the usual size to 20 meters.
*** Note: Rechargeable multi cell accumulator cells current direction operates by bias of the throughput from charging and battery engineering physics principally, hence using six 12 volt batteries in parallel is a pure recipe for disaster because as many cells are available in biased power pressure across(a weird but nominally electrically correct short circuit) as there are along (6 series cells x 6 line end(terminal) cells), not up the negative wire and on around through the circuit loop. There must be less parallel lines number of end cells than the series line has cells.
There is not much worry of that because each line even in a 120vDC rated system is effectively 60 cells of bias and at 12 lines(12 end cells) of "10 x 12v accumulators in series" that's 60 against 12 (or 120 against 12 in a like 240vDC system) for a proper circuit throughput direction. Even then, all that mainly occurs is the very action of how charging batteries occurs if one line is a little weak, it will fill that until it balances to the same voltage pressure, so in effect nothing is exactly wrong.
[ note: Remember an Inverter is a device for taking DC battery bank and converting it to AC power supply voltage e.g. 240vac , so 120v or 240v battery bank is DC and the inverter outputs your power supply at the voltage you specified to the supplier at order time ]
This is very tricky to explain. But you will need to understand accumulator/battery Data Sheets and their graphs a little
First, a "dump load" is a resistor the charge controller uses to throw away excess produced electricity when the battery bank is full or when the wind turbine is overproducing in heavy wind, or when appliances are not being used sufficiently to draw produced charge(for lack of better expression and simplicity).
There are two features of the battery bank supply for charging to consider from a data sheet of the accumulator you buy and use to set the dump load on the charge controller for long service life.
1. The range of DC battery bank voltage the inverter is allowed to use e.g. a 120vdc "rated" inverter will be allowed something like lower end 110 volts(1.83 volts per cell = 11 volts per battery) to upper bounds 150 volts(2.5 volts per cell = 15 volts per battery)
The reason for this is because when a 12v deep cycle battery is fully charged it measures near 15 volts when full. When near empty it measures 10 volts or less depending temperature and battery engineering parameters of electrolyte type and plate conductor design.
2. The "maximum capacity of the battery at a particular temperature" to match when to set the dump load(if such a setting is ever specifically supplied for programming - usually pre set inside for turbine systems) as a synthetic setting value to commit dumping relating the temperature.
On the data sheet can be found a number of graphs some containing a line through the graph and a number and either the letter "C" or "CA" with the number. That number on a graph plot line is a "decimal fraction" of the "C" "C"harge current available or in another graph "CA" the "CA"pacity at that temperature.
So you would for any quality accumulator bank calculate the voltage the bank produces down one series line (e.g. 10 batteries in a 120v system) for the setting temperature to voltage regarding mainly only the quality of the batteries.
This means you would use the produced voltage level at 25 degrees Celsius for good quality batteries to not exceed and the voltage 20 degrees for the low quality batteries. So your bank never charges beyond that voltage.
This means your batteries will last longer because they are not deteriorated by overcharging or charge overloading. Effectively on the number of cycles by rating at any percentage at least it remains as much lead as you deteriorate away by normal usage.
(PDF) High Quality service life The accumulator is rated 10 years at 30o Celsius (High Quality) *** These specifications are the ones to use because they need no cooling and potentially can last 12 years, and only require double walling on their encasing during summer.
(PDF) Medium Quality service life The accumulator is rated 10 years at 20o Celsius (medium quality 1400 - 1600 discharges to 30% DOD) ** This is OK but requires triple walling against direct sunlight in summer.
(PDF) Medium Quality service life The accumulator is rated 10 years at 20o Celsius (a low end medium quality) ** This is OK but requires triple walling against direct sunlight in summer.
(PDF) Low Quality service life The accumulator is rated 8 years at 20o Celsius (low quality) * You would use this type if you were making a small deep cycled system that was moderate in daily discharge e.g. to 40% DOD or 50% DOD "roughly", meaning you understand their life-cycle will be how much you use.
A final note about battery bank sheds and buildings, the temperature sensor for charging level compensation requires the controllers(s) to be in the shed with the batteries so much of the walling system can depend on the side of your house you build the shed onto, but two thing to remember, 1. a line of batteries in series can weigh 150Kg for 120v or 96v series string. 2. The side of the house you build the shed onto depending the direction your house faces and where the generator wires need to run to determine exactly which walls get direct(and in rare circumstance such as bright walls and white concrete reflected light inclusive close walls accross returning infra red) sunlight, and which walls to double or triple wall. If you can, cut a hole in the wall in the side of your house to window pane the controllers behind so the consoles are usable to view for power output (note: some of these controllers can be pre fitted with a computer USB connector info dump to PC and PC software, how far it transmits properly on wires i do not know).
1. Large enough power yield panel set to harvest direct power through the charge controller is at least 5Kw of panels , 7Kw rating of panels preferred.
2. Understanding solar panels themselves have varied yield of Kw relating to temperature(not lighting), e.g. over 35 degrees Celsius panel electricity production decreases until 75oC and is only 80% efficient, because of the size of hot water services and stove-ovens at least 5Kw of panels minimum and high end usage of washing and cooking in summer should be between 8am-10am and 4pm-6pm.
Example manufacturer graph information: a. (PDF) Solar Panel research - Pakistan b. Sanyo 210w solar panel - with power efficiency graph information and at 75oC
3. small wind turbines are not favorable below 5Kw because wind speed is often only half the production speed rating of the turbine at best until windy weather. e.g. a 10Kw wind turbine will generally only be producing 1.5kw to 2kw most of the time
[ (NOTE: The following paragraph is almost redundant in here from newer research and was written as one of the earliest drafts) While the average Australian House is certainly capable of drawing 15Kw all at the one time, "grid mimic" operation cannot be done without having at least two 8Kw or two 10Kw inverters as two different appliance supply circuit systems ]
5Kw systems of 3000w wind and 2000w solar with "two 5Kw output inverter" have the point usually only of price but are good for "medium to high wind areas like mountain regions with houses at tops of hills and from 20Km inland to the coastline"(this can be a 10Kw wind only system if it is a high wind average area at the top of a mountain or hill) and more available in 120v battery bank specification by which means battery quantity bought can be 80 batteries of 80ah or larger "ah" batteries.
10Kw inverters only have the problem to not have used the hot water system before using the oven and hot plates for cooking (You cannot load a normal Australian house using only one inverter!!!). When that level of cooking occurs the current draw will only allow an air-conditioner or television and radio and very small appliances to operate while that is occurring because the inverter circuit breaker will switch off the inverter if it gets overloaded. It's just a little easy to do with a 10Kw inverter when hot water or a washing machine and refrigerators are in operation. Technically only the oven and two hot plate places on the stove are usable because of refrigerator and freezer.
Do not confuse Kilo-Watt(Kw) with Kilo-Watt hours(Kw/h)
example: 1 kw/h is equal to "500w being used for 2 hours".
It requires a "15 KiloWatt power inverter" for almost normal use as minimum compared to the network mains electricity(30Kw power inverter on your street pole) , but smaller carefully managed activities can use a "10 Kilo-Watt power inverter" but will experience difficulty with high current draw activities when many appliances are in use , such as hot water , air conditioning and cooking with hot tops and oven or grill element grate. The reason is that any appliance but particularly appliances using an electric motors require 5x to 10x the current at normal operating level for a short period of 3 - 10 seconds when starting e.g. a 300w fridge when starting draws 3000w for a second or two and as the motor speeds current draw decreases down to 300w.
The most devious of machines in the house is the washing machine, this is because it commits an action of agitation requiring some surge power every 1-2 seconds causing sudden draw so it tends to use at 5 times its rating and draws 10 times its power under load at start-up.
The below table now(updated and changed) has an * asterisk symbol to indicate how untrue current surge and usage value is often shown on other sites information. The highest value is the minimum constant power supply size of inverter should be used.
The below next table has recently been adjusted because of measuring some values and finding them not mentioned properly inclusive the site this table had originated (http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/estimating-appliance-and-home-electronic-energy-use) from.
Some links relating hot water systems showing "Kw" heater element sizes for models.
|"vaguely" average required current (no surge)|
|4 stove hot plates/places on high||8000w|
|oven element||1500 - 2500w|
|grill element||1000 - 2000w|
|refrigerator||100 - 700w|
|freezer||100 - 700w|
|Domestic hot water system||1.5Kw - 3.6Kw|
|lighting||500w - 1000w|
|desktop (large) computer and peripherals||1000w - 1500w|
|stereo record player-radio||1000w|
|digital television||200w - 500w|
|32Lt Microwave||*4000w peaking|
|air exhaust fan||300w|
|washing machine||*4000w peaking|
|Clothes dryer or bar heater||1500w|
There is a common method of import the big guns use which is called "FOB" , FOB means "free on board" which as you would expect of jargon can bear little relation to what the words are.
FOB means the product is yours and your responsibility when the product is loaded onto your truck and leaves the doors of the factory/warehouse property. No transport or insurance is involved in its price.
FOB is also used as a pick-packing fee notation of getting ready an order.
Talking to the supplier (actually "email only" is best for language reasons)
Here is an example of a message to initiate information relating accumulator products.
However, first you would find the product on a site such as i gained most of this information, alibaba.com and also sign-up into their messaging communication repository system with your email address to use it as a principal method of communication messaging along with message copies to your email address (Yes you do get some basic advertising mail from them but it could perhaps interest you, your not talking nic nac economics anyhow so just ignore it or delete it if it does not interest you, accepting it is politer for both of you).
If you cannot read the information in advertisements properly(there are many language typos) on their site or it does not give clear information or is not a verified supplier, ignore the advertisement, do not bother with asking through that advertisement at least, simply find some other advertisements or supplier giving the required information.
Here is an example for a wind Hybrid system to initiate information. The first line is actually part of their trade site page form (..."What is the FOB price on your Wind Solar Hybrid power system,Cheap 20KW wind solar power,Home wind and solar hybrid system."...), NOTE: In numbers refer to a heading on the trade site page of the type of "UNIT" quantity in use for that product e.g. "pieces" or "sets"!
Just remember its not a point if there is a little extra information or the sentences they use could be constructed better, it does in essence do the job required in context of the product and don't ask too many questions at once per email. It can be a day or two before a reply because they process requests all over the world.
So there is no need for any of these, they also use a keyboard too and if it seems there is any attraction in batteries ..."it's purely chemical".... and business not social if it seems that (one final point NEVER SWEAR it's not so much rudeness, it's more of a catch that if one of the two side ends in the conversation is overloaded (yourself or them) it means "failure without cause" and there is NO SOLUTION, THE PROBLEM CANNOT BE CORRECTED and no point in directing aggression, it is all purely a breakdown of communication to terminate for safety for all involved).
When you place your order, you will often be charged a FOB pick-packing fee and will require often to pay 30% of total cost up front before the pick packing occurs (The supplier will send you the T/T banking information in which account to send money).
When the order is ready, they will then notify you to pay the remaining 70% and any other charges.
When paying, take note of the methods at the top of the advertising page they have in the "trade sites" for the "method of payment". Some use Western Union, T/T or L/C.
However, the most sensible method is T/T from your bank.
Both yourself and ACBPS customs needs to know the type of packing and weights each piece of cargo will be (both Net and Gross weights). This you may need to prompt the supplier to tell you when you finalise your order with them before any payment. Remember you can only use sea freight because of cost and the cargo load being extremely heavy. The packaging size and size units and also weight and weight units for each piece whether accumulators on a pallet or a 350Kg wind turbine on a special custom pallet in a wooden carton or the guy wire tower on a pallet in various cartons all need to be accounted for recognition and handling by ACBPS customs and for you to check-sum and handle when you obtain it from the customs warehouse.
As importantly, all that information will be required to be filled in to the "N10 import declaration form" for customs in the ICS electronic Cargo support system.
The legs should be placed in a hole dug with a post digger 1 meter deep and the hole filled with concrete(with the upright leg in it before pouring in the cement) to hold down the sail structure. To ensure it holds in the cement, drill a hole at the bottom of each leg and place a bolt through it protruding an inch either side to act as an anchor in the cement.
The rest is mainly angle as a rim and some arch support from legs to rim mid points. A final note about the panel row tables, the panels do require backing struts welded in as part of the rim across from top rim to bottom rim, these are to prevent panel compression in gale force winds, all edges of each panel must be fastened down to prevent wind compression - torsion.
The guy wire towers wires require 5 meters at minimum radius points from the center of the tower and 1.5 tonne cable SWL/WLL. Lifting the tower may as well be ancient Egyptian tricks but don't forget before it becomes vertical it can continue to travel down the other side of the lift path past vertical. Second, don't let it sway from side to side or the base where it is pivoting will slip out and down goes ¤5000 of wind turbine.
A 5kw or 10kw wind turbine and tower weigh near to or just over 1 tonne , NEVER try to use a wall to support such a tower , it will simply tear down the whole wall.
note:Lengths of Kw rated electrical wiring(for both either wind or solar) are generally offered in some lengths or custom lengths with these kits as take or leave, so there is nothing like the correct wire for the job.
To economically do all this, learn to weld(Adult learning center or TAFE basic handyman course for welding) with either a MIG or Arc-stick electric welder,Arc-stick electric welder is the better because of the angles you will need to get at the joints on the panel support frame table you build, Generally a cheap "arc stick welder" up to around 130amps "and" an 8Kva generator with 240v-AC-15amp-outlet costs around ¤700-¤800 for both, although a 130 amp gasless MIG welding machine can run with a 5Kva generator or 4 kva generator and or from a 10amp 240v socket at approx ¤600 for both. You should not require beyond a 3.25mm electrode with some 2.5mm electrodes for mild steel.
note: These links to equipment sales and supplies are here to help show exactly the pieces and problem-solutions of logistics of DIY
Gasless MIG welder ebay.com.au
4 Kva portable generator
Wireless 4000LBS/1814kg 12V Boat ATV 4WD Electric Winch AU ¤99.90 - (postage AU ¤34.90 Standard Postage)
Important Install notes:
*- never raise the wind turbine or spin it until it is connected to its controller and the controller is both "on" and "connected to the battery bank" ready. Spinning it without connection can cause internal arcing and destroy the turbine generator.
*- never use any electric welder on frames and pieces of metal connected to or with close proximate or touching upon the shielding of sensitive electric components or touching any electrical device with earthing wires connected to the welded material. This will or can easily cause damage to circuitry of the other electrical equipment.
*- Do not connect PV arrays or turbine to the controller until the controller is connected to the battery bank and ready , AND the dump load(good reason for complete kit systems too) resistor system is connected.
*- Large inverters do not have power sockets, neither are the terminals for the 240v AC circuit output "hot-wire" type as from an inverter transformer electricity grid system, current genuinely always flows one side then back the other way in cycle pairs.
*- It is a good idea to incorporate a fuse box for each circuit. Some such as the hot water heater circuit may need a 20A fuse wire.
*- When connecting the air conditioner circuit if its a roof evaporative type, it may be a 240v DC circuit and the connection should happen from one terminal behind its diode box if DC type. The amperage requirements for the model for a fuse need to be determined.
*- When placing the wind turbine on top of the mounting area, (regardless whether mounting it on the 3 meter guy tower tube top section or anything else any other way) block the gaps between the wires that leave the turbine base, and always cut a thin rubber gasket and use some sealant to prevent water entering the base of the turbine. As much a windy day and rain can atomise water particles and it can blow in a microscopic mist up many meters of tube to the turbine electric wiring outlet in its base causing corrosion and possibly arcing or short circuit. Always carefully seal those areas and gaps or joints as safe practice or you could lose approximately ¤4000 worth of turbine(a 5Kw) just from that.
*- It happens to be a good idea(economically) to get the kits below that are with a 12m(or taller if offered) guy wire tower because of cost of building a free stand tower and its requirements. A free stand tower as much for an off grid system should be a minimum of 12 meters high to sit above tree top air current turbulence(and sit in the higher meteorological measured percentile layer of wind).
*- If you build a free stand tower always remember that to safely hold it up a basic extra of 1/5th of its total length must be underground encapsulated in cement (example: a 12 meter tower is now in effect 1440 cm or 14.4 meters long with 2 meters and 40 cm of it underground encapsulated by cement (at least 1 meter diameter cement each leg or if single pole 1.5 meter radius). 1/5th extra is added length whether a 20Kw turbine or a 300w turbine system) whether a solid pipe base or 3(tripod) or 4 legs of an Eiffel type. Any free stand tower base joiner "must support" at least around 1 tonne of mild steel tower flexing(extremely minimal) in a gale force wind.
*- Another part of concreting the tower base legs is the hole for each insertion must be at least 1 foot deeper than the tower base length with a ready solid bottom cement. The legs of the tower require to be kept from contact with earth to lower the possibility of a lightening strike. Do not put a lightning pole within 80 meters of the tower. To also assist lightning strike prevention, paint the bare metal of the tower with an outdoor high temperature plastic type paint.
*- Always obtain the guy wire tower and its parts with the kit, it's the cheapest inclusive having to transport it. The kit will require you to hire at least a 2 tonne van with hydraulic tail lift. Ask the kit supplier if the guy cables are part of the equipment and if any other pieces such as the central and upper cable pole clamps are inclusive (Never presume).
*- If you require to get and put in your own anchor pins for the guy cables (stabilizer cables). The ground pins should all go 1.5 meters down and be at least encased in cement 1 foot diameter(encasing is also to prevent electrical earthing). Such a pin only need be protruding no more than 30 cm (1.8m long total) above ground and be of extra heavy galvanized tube (e.g. 8mm wall) set in the center of the cement.
*- guy cables (stabilizer cables) may be in a format of set of 6 or 8 (3 from the top and 3 from the middle, or , 4 from the top and 4 from the middle).
*- You will potentially need a little help from a hired transportable mobile crane if you do not understand the engineering and safety(particularly delicate valuable loads) of "slinging" lifting actions.("LF" forklift license workcover-NSW theory booklets can help, if you comprehend the engineering reasons in "jibs" and fork "load center distance with height" slinging should not be a problem to you to devise some ancient Egyptian method).
If that does not inspire you to check first and do things correctly(think it through carefully first and check it is right, "don't ever try" something), maybe this will....
Guy wiring the tower
Two things you need to know about setting position of the fastening pegs for the guy wires.
1. The length the guy wires should be.
2. The exact accurate position in the layout the pegs should be placed.
To do this you will need to understand a little simple maths of...
1. Right angle triangles.
2. Equalateral triangles.
But not much if you really don't want because there is undefined extra length you must add for handling to join and tie off at the ends, so accuracy will be easy enough with a short square root method.
First we'll find the guy wire length required(calculator method).
The tower is 12 meters tall but to keep the turbine blades clear of the wires the guy wires will be fastened to the tower at 10 meters.
second, the peg for the first guy wire will be 7 meters away from the base of the tower pole.
With a right angle triangle the "triangle base" is the 10 meter side. The extra side is the 7 meters along the ground to the peg from the tower pole base.
The wire from up top at the 10 meter point on the tower to the peg is the right angle triangle "hypotenuse".
So to find the length of guy wire required from the right angle triangle rule is:
(7 x7 [is 7 squared] = 49) + (10 x 10 [is 10 squared] = 100 ) = 149 square meters.
You use the square root of 149 as the absolute minimum length of cable to make any one of the three guy wires.
The square root of 149 = 12.2 meters is an upper guy wire length.
Square root calculator
Finding the guy wire length by non calculator method apart a piece of string, although you can take the string length and added extra for joining to wherever you get cable from chopped, but this is usually unpractical and you need to get a cable each of the correct minimum length with some handling and joining extra length on it.
For mathematical aberrant accuracy sake, it is easy to use the sum of the squares of the other two sides which in the example is 149sqm.
What we do is find the two integer square roots thats' squaring results are above and below the examples 149sqm.
You may need to do this with pen and paper but long multiplication at this level is quite easy(easy on a piece of paper or to scratch in the dirt).
12m x 12m = 144sqm (below 149)
13m x 13m = 169sqm (above 149)
To "theoretically as aberration" find the square of 12.5m(12 meters and 50 center-meters)
to examine if it is close to 149 subtract by 169 - 144 = 25
then divide it by 2 and add the remainder to 144 so it is a size that is exactly mid way between the two integer square results representing 12.5 as the root.
25 / 2 = 12.5(incidentally)
12.5 + 144 = 156.5sqm
This now represents an aberrational sizing of square and square root mid way in relational size.
to make the aberrational square root 12.25 to see if it is closer divide 12.5 / 2 = 6.25 to make it only a quarter(0.25 is a quarter in decimal) of the way from 144sqm the result of the lower integer square root 12.
now add 144 + 6.25 = 150.25sqm (that's probably as good as it can ever safely-accurately get to 149sqm as relational)
12 meters and 25 center-meters appears to be the basic length required to add joiner and handling extra to for the guy wire.
Always use the closest above size for this rough accuracy trick to ensure things reach.
[ Note: Motor-homes and caravans can often only cram 400w of solar pv panels on the roof at most, but this is only effective during daylight. With a 300w or 400w wind turbine and a 6.5m long, 50mm diameter(usually the size), with 4mm wall aluminium pole it would add enough to help at battery charging overnight and sundry assistance during 240v output inverter use. Small wind turbines are 5kg to 8kg at the before mentioned watt levels ]
Second, we need to know where to place the other two pegs accurately. Oddly because we are using three guy wires around the tower pole we have an easy way if we use an equilateral triangle.
This time we are also partly using ancient Egyptian measuring tricks, but first understand the principle of why to do this using an equilateral!
We need to find the exact point relating both the tower base and the first peg to place the other two pegs evenly apart.
An equalateral triangle has all its internal corner angles(acute) as 60 degrees angle, they are all the same angle.
The sides of an equilateral triangle are all the same length.
This means from the exact mid point between a pair of corners, we could use that point to draw a straight line from it to the third separate opposite triangle corner to achieve it as 30 degrees from that opposite corner point and either side to the mid line we made.
However, we cannot quite do that through the tower base as mid point.
What we do know is that if we were to use the only peg in place we have and we use the tower base position for a straight line it will be one of the sides the same length(7 meters) as the two others we would make if we arrange these two other sides with the peg and base point side all the same length.
You get two pieces of 7 meter rope, stretch both out absolute straight with each touching on one tip and the other two tips, one touches the peg the other tip touches the tower base.
Now we have an equilateral we can use to help create a 30 degrees line from the peg on one side, and again the same action to help make a 30 degrees directed line to intersect the other peg position on the other side.
30 degrees on one side plus 30 degrees on the other side makes 60 degrees, so our starter peg is becoming one corner of a much larger equilateral triangle.
Now "measure the exact(fold to half and place a marker pin)" mid point position on the piece of rope or string touching the tower on one end and touches the other rope on the other tip(mid point of the side opposite the first peg we have in place).
Now place a piece of string around e.g. 9 meters to 12 meters long onto the guy wiring peg and keep it straight as you make a line through that mid point you just found and stretch it out straight for 9 to 12 meters and fasten it down to keep it straight and exactly through the mid point to keep it off shooting at 30 degrees.
Somewhere along the 30 degrees aimed straight line you just made is the point to place one of the other two pegs.
Fasten this new piece of rope or string down about 9 - 12 meters long to hold that angle from the original peg.
Now get a piece of "exactly 7 meter" string and fasten it to the tower base and pull it straight and move with it out straight around the pole above the ground until its tip reaches the piece of string fastened at 30 degrees.
This intersection of the tip and angle setting string is now the point where those two meet and where to place the next peg.
Incidentally, The "mid point"(green in the diagram picture) in the calibrating smaller equilateral is a right angle corner at the point the peg-finder string crosses, but that's not all, if your a nut, because of it, you can do trigonometry using the tower base to first peg line as it is the hypotenuse(7 meters long and 49sqm.) to determine the base side length of the new right angle triangle and multiply by 2x to get the exact length of the new larger equilateral side and simply measure that along the peg setting-finder stretched out string.
However, if your sensible , you can simply use that mid point to first peg length by getting a piece of string and set the length of it from the peg to mid point, then simply extend that length of string from the mid point out further along the 30 degrees setting string to create 2 x the length of the base and that then is the point to place the next peg!
As much again, the distance from the mid point passing as straight line(orange line) through the tower base center at some point intersects the peg position for the other side of the larger equilateral, however(warning), the distance on either side of the tower base are different not equal, so a small equilateral from the first peg and tower base on the opposite side must be used to plot the opposite side line 30 degrees angle but at least that's just "checking" because it is in this example 7 Meters(dark purple line) from the tower base to peg.
Logistics of wiring and Layout
The inverters will need to be as close to the input/output fuse box joined to the entry point of the house wiring because they will need each a pair of wires rated for 10Kw(for 10Kw inverters) , that being 41amps @240v and the same applies to the battery bank housing, needs to be near the inverters with 10Kw DC input (82amps @120v) wire cables pair to the inverters, these wires are huge and cost so as short a run as possible is required.
The run from each series line of panels may be required to be separate and joined at entry to the charge controller, so finding the distance involved and Kw rating of the wire used for take-off carriage is important to know as extra solar cable length and extra wind turbine cable set(2(DC) or 3(possible if AC) cables) can be made part of the trade deal and appropriate #AWG size Kw rating.
* Inverters will need to be properly housed against flooding and weather but with air flow to cool them requiring fly wire close off against insects but also large porous sponge blocks in cavity as air filter.
* (Remember rain hitting the side of an enclosure both bounces up under lids and an oversize(overhang) roof lid should extend at least 40cm down around all sides to prevent splash entry in heavy wind).
The actual power system DC storage(battery bank and peripherals side) side of the controller may differ and may differ with the solar voltages and amperage's inputs.
A second helpful site weather map is a graph of many types of weather statistics by town or postcode as a time line. This has a menu button drop down list to the right top corner of the page that you can use to select or deselect the information shown on the graphic timeline. e.g. wind-speed , wind-direction, solar-radiation, precipitation ...
There is also a search bar for locality in the mid top of the page.
It requires Adobe Flashplayer plug-in in your browser.
WeatherSpark graph timeline map
The BOM Calculator allows conversion of different measurement units.
Steps to Acquiring a Hybrid power system
The main problem with self import(apart money and committing everything at the stipulated time on call) is requiring to fill out some annoying paperwork now done on computer by VPN over the net with customs - ACBPS site for importation(the ICS in CI mode). For most after registration for CCID and ICS, and electronic funds transfer for customs, the N10 import declaration.
ICS cargo support system "CI" Client Interactive first time users
1. Email the supplier and agree on details of the deal and exchange finalised agreement emails with costs and bank details and your details as whom and where the payer is for the deposit to the foreign account(not yours , that will be evident with the identifying depositor details in the bank the money is sent exchanged marked as you on your behalf by the bank).
* Other required equipment is a pallet-jack-trolley , heavy rope, padding carpet patches and three able bodied people.
(PDF) Importation steps and processes from deal to customs warehouse N30 RCR exit after "cleared" (note: schedule 4 mention in this should be "schedule 3" , 4 is the concession type information)
* For the N10 import declaration you should also get/request the name of the shipping line and head office address and the name of the ship and the voyage number. These should be obtained from your supplier, also the first port of entry to the country by the ship and the dates/times for these relevant ports including port of unloading of your goods.
DECLARATION NATURE TYPES - www.cargosupport.gov.au
PDF - Warehouse Declarations Nature 20 (You don't need to know this)
PDF - Import Declarations Nature30
Import Declarations Nature30 - www.cargosupport.gov.au
WARNING - (Around 400ah @ 240vdc rating) For 240vdc battery systems use 100 x 80ah batteries 5 strings of 20 in series , for 120vdc battery systems use 50 x 150ah batteries 5 strings of 10 in series ,or, 100 x 80ah batteries 10 strings of 10 in series.
Australia uses "three phase" 240 volt AC 50Hz output. (Modified sine wave is known as "dirty power" because its wave form is too violent as on/off and sensitive low voltage equipment gets damaged, some have a phase/beat switch but some appliances do not)
Generator 3 phase systems refer to an AC alternators' 3 stator coil cores each with a take-off and a fourth output wire to neutral(alike earth pin) from the other end each three.
To harness 3 phase alternator requires a 3 pin input transformer of the middle pin is connected to the center of the input coil and both sides to the center are the same coil length. The output coil side has 2 pins out for wiring.
3 phase power itself is simply the wave form modulation output by three capacitors from the power supply inverter-transformer.
Other interesting notes: A single 12v vehicle or deep cycle battery has enough power to kill instantly, they are not a toy battery, they are an industrial device!
While some electricians know whether they can touch a live circuit, essentially it is bad practice. Never do it.
Foshan tanfon energy technology co.,LTD , 5000w solar + 5000w wind + 10Kw inverter (10k inverter system the loading trick is a get a second 10k inverter(or if they cannot run parallel have that substituted with a 15kw or 20kw inverter of the correct battery bank values at a price) for hot water washing machine and air-cond. to leave the other to the stove-oven)
(PDF) Tanfon old out of date quote paper 5Solar-5Wind
Foshan tanfon energy technology co.,LTD (verified supplier)
If there is an MOQ(minimum order quantity) more than one you can ask if they will sell one set only and what would be the price, they will tell you if that can be done but it usually means paying more than e.g. half the price would be if the MOQ were two.(note: 3 phase - NOT Single phase)
Suzhou Yueniao Machinery & Electronics Imp & Exp Co., Ltd. , 5000w solar + 5000w wind 10Kw inverter (10k inverter system the loading trick is a get a second 10k inverter(or if they cannot run parallel have that substituted with a 15kw or 20kw inverter of the correct battery bank values at a price) for hot water washing machine and air-cond. to leave the other to the stove-oven)
(PDF) Suzhou Yueniao Machinery&Electronics Imp&Exp Co Ltd old out of date quote paper 5Solar-5Wind
Suzhou Yueniao Machinery & Electronics Imp & Exp Co., Ltd. (verified supplier)
If there is an MOQ(minimum order quantity) more than one you can ask if they will sell one set only and what would be the price, they will tell you if that can be done but it usually means paying more than e.g. half the price would be if the MOQ were two.(note: 3 phase - NOT Single phase)
Suzhou Yueniao Machinery & Electronics Imp & Exp Co., Ltd. , 7000w solar + 8000w wind + 15kw inverter
(PDF) Suzhou Yueniao Machinery&Electronics Imp&Exp Co Ltd old out of date quote paper 7Solar-8Wind
Suzhou Yueniao Machinery & Electronics Imp & Exp Co., Ltd. (verified supplier)
This 20Kw system Only farms with common use of 240v power tools and hoists and pumps would use this. e.t.c.(3 phase - NOT Single phase) is where you would reach "¤30,000 total @95 cents AUD to USD rate(or ¤36,000 @89 cents AUD to USD rate)" if you require to transport batteries around 300Km inland by a transport company, but a good size for farms that use electrical power tool equipment
Suzhou Yueniao Machinery & Electronics Imp & Exp Co., Ltd. , 12,000w solar +8,000w wind + 20kw inverter
(PDF) Suzhou Yueniao Machinery&Electronics Imp&Exp Co Ltd old out of date quote paper 12Solar-8Wind
Suzhou Yueniao Machinery & Electronics Imp & Exp Co., Ltd. (verified supplier)
This is an 8kw system, 3Kw Solar and 5Kw Wind 96Vdc
8kw system, 5Kw Solar and 3Kw Wind 96Vdc Foshan Greentechy Energy Technology Co., Ltd.
(PDF) Old quote brochure 5s-3w - GREENTECHY (CHINA) INDUSTRIAL CO., LTD.
Foshan Greentechy Energy Technology Co., Ltd. alibaba.com
This is an 8kw system, 5Kw Solar and 3Kw Wind
8kw system, 3Kw Solar and 5Kw Wind Shandong Yaneng New Energy Equipment Co., Ltd.
Shandong Yaneng New Energy Equipment Co., Ltd. alibaba.com
This company produces Wind Solar Hybrid kits in China of sizes 10Kw(3Kw Wind - 7Kw Solar) 10Kw(5Kw Wind - 5Kw Solar) 8Kw(5Kw Wind - 3Kw Solar)
Foshan Ouyad Electronic Co., Ltd.
huayaturbine Offers turbines and solar panels.
Some battery company trade site links you may find useful for the type of battery
*!*!*! 12V 80AH GEL(* if you are not aware of these, much more expensive but longer life - However!!! You must input/output through at least 5 series line sets of accumulators) lead acid solar battery for solar system (Minimum Order Quantity: 10 Piece/Pieces)
DOWNLOAD (49) This web Page DIY Wind Solar Hybrids as a PDF document